TY - JOUR
T1 - Fractional Dosing of Yellow Fever Vaccine to Extend Supply: A Modeling Study
JF - bioRxiv
DO - 10.1101/053421
SP - 053421
AU - Wu, Joseph T.
AU - Peak, Corey M.
AU - Leung, Gabriel M.
AU - Lipsitch, Marc
Y1 - 2016/01/01
UR - http://biorxiv.org/content/early/2016/07/25/053421.abstract
N2 - Background The ongoing yellow fever (YF) epidemic in Angola strains the global vaccine supply, prompting WHO to adopt dose sparing for its vaccination campaign in Kinshasa in July-August 2016. Although a 5-fold fractional-dose vaccine is similar to standard-dose vaccine in safety and immunogenicity, efficacy is untested. There is an urgent need to ensure the robustness of fractional-dose vaccination by elucidating the conditions under which dose fractionation would reduce transmission.Methods We estimate the effective reproductive number for YF in Angola using disease natural history and case report data. With simple mathematical models of YF transmission, we calculate the infection attack rate (IAR, the proportion of population infected over the course of an epidemic) under varying levels of transmissibility and five-fold fractional-dose vaccine efficacy for two vaccination scenarios: (i) random vaccination in a hypothetical population that is completely susceptible; (ii) the Kinshasa vaccination campaign in July-August 2016 with different age cutoff for fractional-dose vaccines.Findings We estimate the effective reproductive number early in the Angola outbreak was between 5·2 and 7·1. If vaccine action is all-or-nothing (i.e. a proportion VE of vaccinees receives complete and the remainder receive no protection), n-fold fractionation can dramatically reduce IAR as long as efficacy VE exceeds 1/n. This benefit threshold becomes more stringent if vaccine action is leaky (i.e. the susceptibility of each vaccinee is reduced by a factor that is equal to the vaccine efficacy VE). The age cutoff for fractional-dose vaccines chosen by the WHO for the Kinshasa vaccination campaign (namely, 2 years) provides the largest reduction in IAR if the efficacy of five-fold fractional-dose vaccines exceeds 20%.Interpretation Dose fractionation is a very effective strategy for reducing infection attack rate that would be robust with a large margin for error in case fractional-dose VE is lower than expected.Funding NIH-MIDAS, HMRF-Hong Kong
ER -