%0 Journal Article
%A Gilson, M
%A Dahmen, D
%A Moreno-Bote, R
%A Insabato, A
%A Helias, M
%T The covariance perceptron: A new paradigm for classification and processing of time series in recurrent neuronal networks
%D 2019
%R 10.1101/562546
%J bioRxiv
%P 562546
%X Learning in neuronal networks has developed in many directions, from image recognition and speech processing to data analysis in general. Most theories that rely on gradient descents tune the connection weights to map a set of input signals to a set of activity levels in the output of the network, thereby focusing on the first-order statistics of the network activity. Fluctuations around the desired activity level constitute noise in this view. Here we propose a conceptual change of perspective by employing temporal variability to represent the information to be learned, rather than merely being the noise that corrupts the mean signal. The new paradigm tunes both afferent and recurrent weights in a network to shape the input-output mapping for covariances, the second-order statistics of the fluctuating activity. When including time lags, covariance patterns define a natural metric for time series that capture their propagating nature. Notably, this viewpoint differs from recent studies that focused on noise correlation and (de)coding, because the activity variability here is the basis for stimulus-related information to be learned by neurons. We develop the theory for classification of time series based on their spatio-temporal covariances, which reflect dynamical properties. Closed-form expressions reveal identical pattern capacity in a binary classification task compared to the ordinary perceptron. The information density, however, exceeds the classical counterpart by a factor equal to the number of input neurons. We finally demonstrate the crucial importance of recurrent connectivity for transforming spatio-temporal covariances to spatial covariances.
%U https://www.biorxiv.org/content/biorxiv/early/2019/06/26/562546.full.pdf